Parenting and child development
child Development in the preschool period
Preschool age is an important phase in the life and upbringing of children, which laid the basis for further comprehensive development of a child. This time of intense growth, brain development and all major body functions. At this stage in the upbringing of the child lays the main features of the character to determine the type of temperament of the child. There are four: sanguine, choleric, phlegmatic and melancholic. Child development is largely determined by what type gravitates his temperament. In pure form these types of the nervous system are very rare, but, as a rule, any child can be attributed to some kind of intermediate type with the approach to one of the main.
Particularly pronounced manifestations of the type of temperament are at the very youngest age, and largely determine the child’s upbringing. The type of the nervous system must be taken into account in the process of raising children. Moreover, in this age of targeted education and creating certain conditions may, within certain limits, to influence the manifestation of the characteristics of temperament, smooth some unwanted its manifestations and to send emotional development of the child in a favorable direction.
The education and development of preschool children is primarily determined by their physical and mental capacities and peculiar to this age type of thinking. At this stage of development, a child’s thinking is closely linked with practical activities and draws on illustrative examples. Accordingly, methods of child rearing should be based on the study of concrete objects, their properties, actions that you can take to produce. The main instrument of education and development at this age is a game. It is in the process of playing a child’s development happens naturally, without coercion. The child gradually learns new about surrounding objects and phenomena, learns to communicate and behave with other children.
At an early age are actively developing the child’s needs, and are formed on their basis a variety of interests. The main driving force behind the ongoing development in this period is cognitive interest, first to the process of taking actions, and later to their result. The main task of educating young children is to maintain this interest, the development of curiosity, assistance in the development of new activities and the timely expansion of the horizons of the child.
In the process of raising a child it is important to instill in him the ability to act and communicate with other people with the understanding of what is and what is not. Perfectly, this contributes to the education of children in the team, whether it’s a group of kindergarten or classes in the developing center. Especially the education of children at this age are related to the fact that in the period of preschool child development individual interests are formed, the tendency for certain kinds of activity. Therefore, the purpose of children’s education in this period is to give the child a basic knowledge of a variety of activities, from physical exercise to the development of artistic and musical abilities, discover nature in a playful way to become familiar with the basic disciplines, more in-depth study which will begin in the school. Also useful would be to purchase individual alphabet at a discount. Correctly targeted pre-school education plays a crucial role throughout the subsequent life of man, his physical, intellectual and spiritual development and self-determination.
The education of children of younger and average school age
The next age stage, no less important in the upbringing of the child is primary school age. During this period the child is in a difficult journey from rookie first-grader with little understanding of the educational process, to the student who has mastered the rhythm of school life, possessed a considerable knowledge base. Gradually smoothed out the differences between the habits and way of thinking formed during the course of pre-school education, and new skills and knowledge that arise under the influence of the school of education.
Under the influence of the educational process in the elementary school child development reaches a new level. First of all, intensely and in different directions developing cognitive interest. However, the pace of development of the child are largely determined by the peculiarities of education of children adopted by a particular teacher. A child comes to school with a huge desire to learn new things and education, methods of teaching and evaluation of student success is largely determined, will develop this interest further, or falters under the influence of dissatisfaction with teachers and bad ratings. At this time, the children finally formed tendencies and inclinations to particular art forms and fields of knowledge. Therefore, the education of children at this age should be aimed not only at gaining knowledge indirectly, from teachers or parents, but also to develop a set of skills necessary for independent learning and working with various educational materials.
At the initial stage of school education is the education of the child rests on the maintenance of the authority of parents and especially teachers. The impact of the teacher on the personality of the child is very high. It is a period when education and development are closely interrelated: the level of development is still a determining factor in the choice of teaching methods, and Vice versa, the quality of education depends on the intensity of a child’s development.
Parenting in adolescence, the transition from primary to secondary school, marked by the fact that the child gradually comes out from under the influence of teachers and parents. During this period, child rearing is difficult specific physiological processes, leading to increased excitability of the nervous system and, as a result, the unbalance of the behavior of the child.
This period is characterized by a heightened sense of maturity, the desire to get rid of senior care. The range of interests of a teenager is largely determined by themselves, rather than the result of parental influence. At this age become stronger friendships with their peers, there are new bosses — as in the immediate neighborhood, and among famous people or even literary and movie characters. In the process of raising children during this period it is important to show sensitivity and tact, respect for individuality and the right to autonomy of each child. A big role in this period may play a revival of interest in self-education, based primarily on the desire to imitate their favorite heroes.
Basically, the development of the child finishes high school. At this time, smoothed out most of the contradictions of adolescence. Again the teacher’s role in raising a child — and now, as a mentor, helping to inculcate in students the foundations of worldview, to realize their aptitudes and interests to certain activities or professions.