The Concept of autonomy in learning.
For the elaboration of the child’s self many teachers recommend the use of special instructions for performing various tasks that teach your baby to form a certain algorithm in various situations (e.g., how to learn a new rule, how to solve a complex problem, how to do the work on the bugs, etc.). Such reminders can be made with the child in the form of diagrams or drawings, or a numbered sequence, and hang over his Desk, the child with them were compared.
It is known that a large number of errors children make due to carelessness, it is therefore very important skill in learning activity is self-control. The child should be able to learn, remember if the content of the paragraph, find the spelling of words in the dictionary to check the accuracy of mathematical calculations, etc., and in the classroom, and at home should always be the scheme of self-examination. After all, when the child learns to check after any type of activity, number of errors he has dramatically reduced.
If the child is when the job shows any initiative, for example, decides an additional job, or finds during preparation of additional material, be sure to praise him.
Entering school, the child moves to a new stage of development and personal growth. The main place now occupies the training activities that foster self-reliance, although the previous types of activity (game, work, socializing), in which his independence was formed, persist. In addition, a significant portion of the business qualities of the child, manifested in adolescence. are formed in the process of studying. From these competencies depends on the motivation of success, which begins to develop in children before school age .
At the age of 6-11 years children begin to appear the idea that if you put in more effort to compensate for the lack of their abilities. The child at this time is formed and strengthened a very significant personal characteristic, which in the future is determined by what will be his success in a particular activity.
In the initial years of schooling in the course of employment and learning in children also fixed qualities such as independence and hard work. This happens when the child, some effort to achieve the result, and received for these efforts to promote, achieve their goals.
Learning the child may cause positive or negative emotions, on what depends, if he gets the pleasure from work. If he gets it, born of the hard work.
What first educational activity children have to cope with many difficulties associated with the educational process (difficulty in learning writing, reading and numeracy), getting used to the new conditions (new requirements, duties, mode of the day) and new concerns (before you could play, came home from kindergarten, and now need to do homework), also contributes to the development of the child’s hard work.
During this period it will be important for parents to think about a reward system for their child for successes, but those successes that are given to him hard, and which depend on how much effort it will take to complete this activity.
Of great importance is the child’s belief in their own success, it should be maintained by the teacher. The lower the level of aspiration of the child and his self-esteem, the stronger it needs to keep raising its people (teachers, parents).
In the Junior school age independence of children dependent on adults. And this period may be critical, crucial for the development of this personality. The existence of dependency and autonomy needs to be in equilibrium. So, the child may become closed and naughty, if from an early age to do the main emphasis on independence, that will complicate his life and experience. And at the same time, the child may become passive, dependent, may become dependent on the opinions of adults and slow the development of personal qualities due to excessive obedience, openness and trust.
By the end of primary school age appropriate motive is strengthened and becomes stable personal trait, and since the beginning of schooling ripening the rest of the personality traits that we now consider.
Like preschoolers, children of primary school age still have confidence in adults and imitate them, recognize their full authority and accept their comments and evaluation, we can say, unconditionally. In other words, whatever the younger student self-esteem, it is a repetition of what is said of him by an adult. This is very important because the child’s self-esteem directly depends on how to evaluate him and his adult success. Unlike preschoolers, children of primary school age already, there are different kinds of self-esteem: low, adequate and high.
Great responsibility from adults require openness and trust in the upbringing of children, adults constantly have to monitor your thoughts and actions.
When students get a little older, they already appear conscious goal – to achieve success in one or other activity. They are concentrated and from foreign Affairs try to ignore. This is especially evident when carried away favorite and interesting thing, they spend hours doing something with my hands or when I try to play any interesting game. At such moments, the child’s behavior control intention and purpose appeared, avoiding “dispersion” of his attention.
At the same time, we also must not forget the important point that achieving success in humans, but the actual motive to achieve success is another motive is avoiding failure . These both pupils develop oppositely in the main for their age, activities: in the game, or doctrine.
The motive of failure avoidance does not encourage the child to achieve success. If the child constantly punished for the failures and not to encourage his successes, he will try to do something good not to succeed, but in order not to be punished. Actually the result in this case, it will be a little upset.
Conversely, if you help the child in difficult moments, to encourage his efforts, he will form the motive of achieving success .
The motivation of success depends not only on the self-esteem of the child, but also on the level of requirements. This level can be explained by the progress in training activities and provision that the child is in the children’s team. If a child in the team has a high status and credibility among peers, accordingly, it will be moderately high level requirements and normal self-esteem.
Very important in developing and strengthening the motivation to achieve success is the fact that the child was aware of their abilities, and on this basis he has faith in his own success.
How to develop pupils ‘ independence? In the first place greet the aspirations of your child to be independent, to trust him enough to do yourself. And, of course, don’t forget about to encourage.
From the beginning of schooling, try their help in homework to minimize the child did everything himself. For the development of such quality you can, for example, to create a situation suitable conditions for which there are in the group forms of work and learning: the child intrusted with some important task, and if he successfully executes, it turns out to be a leader for others.